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Thanized and their brains removed and either frozen using Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) compound (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Fort Washington, PA) in cryomolds placed atop dry ice, or fixed in 10 buffered formalin and paraffin embedded for histopathological analysis. The symptom-free survival of nude mice harboring U87MG parental versus transfected xenografts was compared. Kaplan-Meyer surv
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Normal brain) and totalRNA was eluted at the final step into a final volume of 11 microliters. One microliter of each eluted RNA sample was used for quantitation with the RiboGreen (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) assay kit. These total RNA samples were analyzed for integrity by obtaining electropherograms on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer chip. Samples of acceptable quality based on RNA integrity numb
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L resection is an important predictor of patient survival [3,4], local therapy for glioblastoma fails because microscopically invasive cells evade resection and eventually proliferate in spite of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy [5,6]. Controlling the invasive nature of this tumor may offer hope for more efficacious local therapy, improved quality of life, and perhaps better response to adjuvant therapi
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Thotopically xenografted into the brains of immunocompromized mice. Invasive cells at the tumor periphery were isolated using laser capture microdissection. The mRNA expression profile of these cells was compared to expression at the tumor core, using normal mouse brain to control for host contamination. Galectin-1, a target identified by screening the resulting data, was stably over-expressed in
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Ed migration and invasion in vitro. In vivo, tumors expressing high galectin-1 levels showed enhanced invasion and decreased host survival. Conclusions: In conclusion, cells at the margin of glioblastoma, in comparison to tumor core cells, have enhanced expression of mediators of invasion. Galectin-1 is likely one such mediator. Previous studies, along with the current one, have proven galectin-1
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L resection is an important predictor of patient survival [3,4], local therapy for glioblastoma fails because microscopically invasive cells evade resection and eventually proliferate in spite of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy [5,6]. Controlling the invasive nature of this tumor may offer hope for more efficacious local therapy, improved quality of life, and perhaps better response to adjuvant therapi
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Ns.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Toussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/11/1/Page 2 ofgrowth factor receptors [11] to effector metallo- [12,13] and serine- [14] proteases. Galectin-1 has also been identified as a key player in GBM cell mi
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Led feedback inhibition of RAF-MEK signaling and elevated transcriptional output of the pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009, 106:4519?524. Zuidervaart W, van Nieuwpoort F, Stark M, Dijkman R, Packer L, Borgstein AM, Pavey S, van der Velden P, Out C, Jager MJ, et al: Activation of the MAPK pathway is a common event in uveal melanomas although it rarely occurs through mutation of BRAF or RAS. Br

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